KARABAKH KHANENDES  | Sound lectures

School | Sound records



Karabakh school of khanendes

Seadet Tahmirazgizi
Doctor of philosophy on art

Karabakh school of khanendes has passed through great history way. There are a lot of performers who are developing of the profession of singing and getting over new ways in our mugham stage. Their names remembered in the history of Azerbaijan mastery art. Because they have put indelible track after they themselves. Karabagh is a motherland of Azerbaijani poetry and music; it is a part of the Azerbaijan Republic. It is a land of miraculous and picturesque nature, as well as the richest spiritual and cultural traditions. Karabagh is the native land of a great many outstanding Azerbaijani scientists, poets, writers, artists, and musicians.

Shusha city is a historical and cultural centre of Karabagh. It takes specific place in Azerbaijani musical culture.

But it is clear problem, profession of khanende is not satisfied only with being of the voice. There are some factors here that they demand professionalism. For this purpose the basic condition is get education of khanendes.

Taking into account this necessary demand, in Karabakh special in Shusha poetry and mysteries of the music was taught to children from early years. Karabagh School as a school of traditional music culture was developed around individual masters, handing down traditions of their professional creative work. Schools of special musicbegan activities in the Shusha from middle of the 19th century.

Famous in Shusha connoisseur of mugam Harrat Gulu was the first who opened such school. He chose talented children with good voices from the region and taught them basis of eastern poetry and music as well to sing mugams and tesniffs. He paid special attention to the purity of voice and correct singing of destgakh. Mir Movsum Nevvab`s school gave great impetus to profession of khanende, too.

Mugham singers, who mastered all rules to sing mugams and best tradition of their predecessor, carefully protected these traditions, developed and enriched them, and then transmitted to the future generation. Thus they created their own style of singing, own traditions, own performing schools, and had own adherents.

Karabakh khanendes have existed in periods schools were not still. They became famous with performing folk songs occuring in the oral picture between people - such as Khanende Yusif, Shukur oglu Karim, Hasanja. Namely after these khanendes Harrat Gulu has created his school.

Graduates of this school opened new pages art of the Karabakh khanendes. Despite all this the school played significant role in upbringing of many singers, which later took important place in Azerbaijani music culture.

We shall be able to note these notable performers - Meshedi Isi, Haji Husu, Ebulbaqi Zulalov, Malibeyli Meshedi Keshtazli Hashim, Kecheci oglu Mehemmed Ferzeliyev, Islam Abdullayev and others. These craftsmans was born in the Karabakh. Jabbar Garyagdioglu, Seyid Shushinski and Khan Shushinski are khanendes who written their named with gold letters to Azerbaijan culture. Wonderful Azerbaijani poetess Khurshud Banu Natavan arranged music assemblies, called "Mejlisi Faramushan". An outstanding scientist, artist, and musicologist Mir Mohsun Navvab arranged such assemblies, called "Mejlisi-uns" assemblies cardinally differed from wedding parties. They carried on interesting talks on literature and painting, and discussed aesthetic problems of poetry, music and mugham mastery. In the middle of XIX century, the literary council functioning in Shamakhy was called "Beytus-safa". Such assemblies from time to time functioned not just Baku but in different cities of the country and facilitated and paved the way for recognition of many bright persons.

There is specific traditions of Karabakh shcool of khanendes. Voice Karabakh singer has the special harmony. Those voices likes to each other and at the same time differs from each other.Jabbar, Seyid, Khan and their masters Yagub Mammadov, Bakir Hashimov, Mutellim Mutellimov, Islam Rzayev, Sra Gedimova, Ildirim Hasanov, Sekhavet Mammadov, Arif Babayev, Mensum Ibrahimov and others play an imprtant role in the Azerbaijan and Karabakh mugham art.

A few interesting sides have existed in the Karabakh singing profession - People has given special nicknames to some craftsmans - Shushali Ibad, Bala Mahammad and others. Art which their began increased to Jabbar, Seyid and Khan`s top. They introduce our country to the world with their unforgettable and amazing voices. Karabakh Khanendes album created under the support of Mrs Mehriban Aliyeva, President of Heydar Aliyev Foundation, Goodwill Ambassador of UNESCO and ISESCO. Karabakh khanendes music album, which included performance by 24 mugham singers as part of the "Azerbaijani Mughams" Project. This project spreads Karabakh khanendes school news to the world


® Xan Şuşinski Fondu; Musiqi Dünyası, 2013 Project participants